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Here we are going to see ping responses network unreachable,request timed out,success with a simple topology by adding static route on each router step by step.




Step 1:Create a topology like this





Step 2:Routers only knows directly connected network,there is no static route added.Now, ping default gate way 10.0.0.1  from Host 10.0.0.10. we will get reply from 10.0.0.1.Because router knows 10.0.0.0 network.


ping 10.0.0.1


PC>ping 10.0.0.1

Pinging 10.0.0.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 10.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=157ms TTL=255
Reply from 10.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=16ms TTL=255
Reply from 10.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=29ms TTL=255
Reply from 10.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=31ms TTL=255

Ping statistics for 10.0.0.1:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
    Minimum = 16ms, Maximum = 157ms, Average = 58ms








Step 3:Now ping host 40.0.0.10,we will get


PC>ping 40.0.0.10

Pinging 40.0.0.10 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 10.0.0.1: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 10.0.0.1: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 10.0.0.1: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 10.0.0.1: Destination host unreachable.

Ping statistics for 40.0.0.10:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),

Because Router R1 doesn't know about the network 40.0.0.0.So we will get reply from 10.0.0.1 destination host unreachable.Check rouing table of R1 by giving command



R1#show ip route

Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
       i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area
       * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
       P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

C    10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
C    20.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial2/0








Step 4:Add static route to Router R1 for the network 40.0.0.0


R1(config)#ip route 40.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 20.0.0.2


Now,Packets that came to Router R1 for the network 40.0.0.0 will be forwarded to 20.0.0.2

Check Routing table of R1 by giving command,



R1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
       i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area
       * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
       P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

C    10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
C    20.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial2/0
S    40.0.0.0/8 [1/0] via 20.0.0.2











Step 5:Now ping ip address  20.0.0.1,that is connected to Router R1 by giving command

PC>ping 20.0.0.1

Pinging 20.0.0.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 20.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=31ms TTL=255
Reply from 20.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=16ms TTL=255
Reply from 20.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=32ms TTL=255
Reply from 20.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=31ms TTL=255

Ping statistics for 20.0.0.1:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
    Minimum = 16ms, Maximum = 32ms, Average = 27ms

We get reply from 20.0.0.1 because router R1 knows directly connected network.






Step 6:Now ping ip address 20.0.0.2


PC>ping 20.0.0.2

Pinging 20.0.0.2 with 32 bytes of data:

Request timed out.
Request timed out.
Request timed out.
Request timed out.

Ping statistics for 20.0.0.2:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),

Router R2 doesn't know about the network 10.0.0.0.So we can't get reply from R2.Now add static route to router R2 for network 10.0.0.0  .Check routing table of R2


R2#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
       i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area
       * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
       P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

C    20.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial2/0
C    30.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial3/








Step 7:Add Static route to network 10.0.0.0 in R2

R2(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 20.0.0.1


R2#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
       i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area
       * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
       P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

S    10.0.0.0/8 [1/0] via 20.0.0.1
C    20.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial2/0
C    30.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial3/0








Step 8:Now ,ping 20.0.0.2 we get


PC>ping 20.0.0.2

Pinging 20.0.0.2 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 20.0.0.2: bytes=32 time=63ms TTL=254
Reply from 20.0.0.2: bytes=32 time=62ms TTL=254
Reply from 20.0.0.2: bytes=32 time=62ms TTL=254
Reply from 20.0.0.2: bytes=32 time=62ms TTL=254

Ping statistics for 20.0.0.2:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
    Minimum = 62ms, Maximum = 63ms, Average = 62ms

After that, ping 40.0.0.10

PC>ping 40.0.0.10

Pinging 40.0.0.10 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 20.0.0.2: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 20.0.0.2: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 20.0.0.2: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 20.0.0.2: Destination host unreachable.

Ping statistics for 40.0.0.10:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),








Step 9:We get reply from 20.0.0.2 as Destination host unreachable.So ,we have to add 40.0.0.0 network to R2

R2(config)#ip route 40.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 30.0.0.2

R2#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
       i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area
       * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
       P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

S    10.0.0.0/8 [1/0] via 20.0.0.1
C    20.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial2/0
C    30.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial3/0
S    40.0.0.0/8 [1/0] via 30.0.0.2







Step 10:  Ping 30.0.0.1 and see what we get,

PC>ping 30.0.0.1

Pinging 30.0.0.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 10.0.0.1: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 10.0.0.1: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 10.0.0.1: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 10.0.0.1: Destination host unreachable.

Ping statistics for 30.0.0.1:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),









Step 11:  Add static route to Router R1 for the network 30.0.0.0



R1(config)#ip route 30.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 20.0.0.2



Check Routing table of Router R1,


R1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
       i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area
       * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
       P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

C    10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
C    20.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial2/0
S    30.0.0.0/8 [1/0] via 20.0.0.2
S    40.0.0.0/8 [1/0] via 20.0.0.2


Now , ping 30.0.0.1,


PC>ping 30.0.0.1

Pinging 30.0.0.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 30.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=63ms TTL=254
Reply from 30.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=62ms TTL=254
Reply from 30.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=62ms TTL=254
Reply from 30.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=63ms TTL=254

Ping statistics for 30.0.0.1:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
    Minimum = 62ms, Maximum = 63ms, Average = 62ms







Step 12:  Ping 30.0.0.2 and see what we will get,

PC>ping 30.0.0.2

Pinging 30.0.0.2 with 32 bytes of data:

Request timed out.
Request timed out.
Request timed out.
Request timed out.

Ping statistics for 30.0.0.2:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),
Router R3 doesn't know about the network 10.0.0.0.








Step 13:Add network 10.0.0.0 &20.0.0.0 by using static route command.


R3(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 30.0.0.1
R3(config)#ip route 20.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 30.0.0.1



R3#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
       i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area
       * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
       P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

S    10.0.0.0/8 [1/0] via 30.0.0.1
S    10.0.0.0/8 [1/0] via 30.0.0.1
C    30.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial3/0
C    40.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0






Now ,ping 40.0.0.10


PC>ping 40.0.0.10

Pinging 40.0.0.10 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 40.0.0.10: bytes=32 time=125ms TTL=125
Reply from 40.0.0.10: bytes=32 time=110ms TTL=125
Reply from 40.0.0.10: bytes=32 time=110ms TTL=125
Reply from 40.0.0.10: bytes=32 time=125ms TTL=125

Ping statistics for 40.0.0.10:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
    Minimum = 110ms, Maximum = 125ms, Average = 117ms


Finally we get reply from 40.0.0.10 .








Step 14:  Now go host 40.0.0.10 and ping host 10.0.0.10 and check whether we can ping or not..


PC>ping 10.0.0.10

Pinging 10.0.0.10 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 10.0.0.10: bytes=32 time=109ms TTL=125
Reply from 10.0.0.10: bytes=32 time=125ms TTL=125
Reply from 10.0.0.10: bytes=32 time=125ms TTL=125
Reply from 10.0.0.10: bytes=32 time=125ms TTL=125

Ping statistics for 10.0.0.10:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
    Minimum = 109ms, Maximum = 125ms, Average = 121ms







Three types of reply we got

Reply
Destination host unreachable
Request timed out


In Router,

For,Reply-     !!!!!
       Destination host unreachable-   UUUUU
       Request timed out-     .......

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